A User's Guide to Vacuum Technology by John F. O'Hanlon

By John F. O'Hanlon

Within the decade and a part because the book of the second one version of A User?s advisor to hoover expertise there were many vital advances within the box, together with spinning rotor gauges, dry mechanical pumps, magnetically levitated faster pumps, and ultraclean approach designs. those, besides better cleansing and meeting ideas have made contamination-free production a truth. Designed to bridge the space in either wisdom and coaching among designers and finish clients of vacuum apparatus, the 3rd variation bargains a pragmatic point of view on today?s vacuum know-how. With a spotlight at the operation, knowing, and choice of apparatus for business approaches utilized in semiconductor, optics, packaging, and comparable coating applied sciences, A User?s advisor to hoover know-how, 3rd variation presents a close remedy of this crucial box. whereas emphasizing the basics and relating major issues now not correctly lined in other places, the textual content avoids issues now not correct to the common consumer.

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D(l-a)r Fig. 15 Model for calculating the transmission probability of a single element. 4 MOLECULAR FLOW 47 I Tube 1 r- Tube 2 I I I a, ar- a2 I 1=( 1 -+ 1 --I) a a, a2 Fig. 16 Model for calculating the transmission probability of two elements in series. J. Appl. , 8, p. 15, C. W. Oatley. Copyright 1957, The Institute of Physics. Haefer [32] developed a usehl addition theorem for elements in the molecular flow regime. It relates the total transmission probability of n elements a],, to the transmission probability a, and the inlet area Ai of each component.

J. D. Pinson and A. W. Peck. Copyright 1962, Macmillan, New York, p. 407. 0' R. 896 Fig. 12 Molecular transmission probability of a parallel plate model. Reprinted with permission from Trans. 9th Nutl. Vuc. , J. D. Pinson and A. W. Peck. Copyright 1962, Macmillan, New York, p. 407. 5 5 2 2 3 3 3 3 1 2 3 4 5 GAS FLOW 44 Fig. 13 Series conductance of two elements: (a) the pipes are isolated by a large volume, and (b) the pipes are connected directly together. The pressure readings are those measured by a gauge in the gas stream pointing upstream and parallel to the flow direction.

L. Levenson et d. Copyright 1963, Soci6t6 Francaise des Ingeneiurs et Techniciens du Vide. 0 I Fig. 8 Molecular transmission probability of a rectangular duct. Reprinted with permission fiom Le Vide, No. 103, p. 42, L. L. Levenson et al. Copyright 1963, Soci6t6 Francaise des Ingeneiurs et Techniciens du Vide. 45" 8 . so" 1 I 1 1 I - - I Fig. 9 Molecular transmission probability of a chevron baffle. Reprinted with permission from Le Vide, No. 103, p. 42, L. L. Levenson et al. Copyright 1963, SocitSttS Francaise des Ingeneiurs et Techniciens du Vide.

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