Advanced Transmission Electron Microscopy: Imaging and by Jian Min Zuo, John C.H. Spence

By Jian Min Zuo, John C.H. Spence

This quantity expands and updates the insurance within the authors' renowned 1992 e-book, Electron Microdiffraction. because the identify implies, the focal point of the publication has replaced from electron microdiffraction and convergent beam electron diffraction to all different types of complicated transmission electron microscopy. targeted recognition is given to electron diffraction and imaging, together with high-resolution TEM and STEM imaging, and the appliance of those how you can crystals, their defects, and nanostructures. The authoritative textual content summarizes and develops lots of the important wisdom which has been received through the years from the examine of the a number of electron scattering challenge, the hot improvement of aberration correctors and their functions to fabrics constitution characterization, in addition to the authors' broad educating event in those components. Advanced Transmission Electron Microscopy: Imaging and Diffraction in Nanoscience is perfect to be used as a sophisticated undergraduate or graduate point textual content in help in fact fabrics in fabrics technology, Physics or Chemistry departments.

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In case I1 ¼ I2 , then t ¼ jc12 ðsÞj. For this reason, c12 ðsÞ is called the complex degree of partial coherence. The normalization against the autocorrelation function in the definition of c12 ðsÞ ensures that its maximum will not exceed 1 (Born and Wolf 1999). The fully incoherent and coherent cases correspond to jc12 ðsÞj ¼ 0 and 1, respectively. Experimentally, the longitudinal and transverse components of c12 ðsÞ are measured as shown in Fig. 4 using interferometry. For the longitudinal component, the source points are selected to be on the same axis along the propagation direction using a Michelson interferometry (Steel 1985).

An observer moving with the wave, in the wave coordinate x′, only sees a local disturbance, and the wave function is then simply given by / ¼ f ðx0 Þ. For a stationary observer, the origin of the x′ coordinate moves by a distance of vt at time t. M. H. 5 -1 0 5 10 15 20 Fig. 1 Wave function of Eq. 3) plotted as function of x for t = 0 and A = 1 Double differentiating Eq. 1) on both sides by x and t gives the homogeneous wave equation of @2 1 @2 / ¼ /: v2 @t2 @x2 ð2:2Þ The simplest wave is a sinusoidal wave in the form of !

In 1940, MacGillavry used two-beam theory to fit experimental CBED patterns in the first attempt to measure structure factors using dynamical electron diffraction theory (MacGillavry 1940). Theoretical work on the dynamical theory with emphasis on the symmetry properties of the scattering was continued throughout the 1950s by researchers such as Niehrs, Fukahara, Fues, Howie and Whelan, Fujimoto, Miyake, Tournarie, Sturkey, and Cowley and Moodie. In 1957, K. Kambe, in his study of three-beam theory, showed that the intensity depends on a certain sum of three structure-factor phases (the three-phase invariant), which is independent of the choice of origin and so might be measured.

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